Smartphone jargon buster
The mobile phone industry is full of complex-sounding terms that often go over the heads of the less technological of us. If you’re having problems telling your 3G from your 4G, or don’t know why people keep talking about tablets then you’ve come to the right place. Here’s a breakdown of all the mobile phone jargon flying about these days in plain and simple English.
3G refers to the third generation of mobile standards as determined by a body called the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). It offers broadband-like speeds to mobile phones users so you can check your emails on the go, surf the web, make video calls and download music in no time, even when you’re not at home.
3G is made possible by two technologies known as HSDPA and HSUPA which work together to help mobile users access these high download speeds. Many mobile phones have built in 3G capabilities these days, but you’ll need to have a data plan within your contract in order to use it.
4G is basically the next step-up from 3G and offers even faster internet access speeds than before. It’s sometimes referred to as a ‘superfast connection’, and rightly so – it is superfast. There’s 4G coverage in most of the major cities in the UK at the moment and EE plan to have the entire country covered by the end of 2015.
The US has had 4G in the bag for ages, with each mobile phone carrier having its own 4G network. They all offer the same high-speed connections but have different names. AT&T and Verizon recently launched LTE (Long Term Evolution), Sprint uses WiMAX and T-Mobile is pushing HSPA+ (High Speed Packet Access Evolved).
This stands for Assisted Global Positioning System and uses satellites and phone network base stations to find your exact location on your phone’s map, in the same way a Sat Nav does when you’re in the car. You may have also heard of GPS before – the difference between the two is that A-GPS finds your location quicker than the bog-standard GPS service can, even if you’re surrounded by tall buildings.
An accelerometer is a common feature found both on tablets and smartphones. It’s a clever bit of kit built into devices that detects your movement and automatically adjusts the screen to portrait or landscape mode when you turn your phone 90 degrees. This can be particularly handy when you want to watch a video or look at some pictures in full screen mode.
AMOLED (Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) is a type of display technology that produces super crisp and sharp pictures with a deeper colour saturation than an LCD display. It’s been around for a bit now after first showcased on the Samsung Wave. It is reportedly lighter than an LCD screen and uses less power, so your phone’s battery will last a bit longer.
Android is the name of an operating system (sometimes written as ‘OS’) created by Google. It first appeared in 2008 when it launched in the US on a smartphone called the T-Mobile G1, and has since gone on to become one of the most popular operating systems in the world. Most manufacturers use Android as their primary operating system because it is easy to use and can be customised easily, allowing manufacturers to put their own features onto it. Google regularly releases updates for Android so users can take advantage of the latest features it has to offer. Each update is named after a sweet dessert in alphabetical order alongside the version number.
It all started with Cupcake and so far we’ve seen Android roll out Donut 1.6, Éclair 2.0/2.1, Froyo 2.2, Gingerbread 2.3/2.4, Honeycomb 3.0, Ice Cream Sandwich 4.0, Jelly Bean 4.1 and finally KitKat 4.4 which is the current version.
Apps was voted Word of the Year in 2010, and with good reason. An app is downloaded from an app store onto your smartphone and can be almost anything from a game or a travel guide, to a personal trainer or something to simply tell you what the weather is going to be like. They’re created by either the manufacturer of an operating system or approved third-party developers and are then featured on that operating system’s particular app store, either for free or at a set price.
An app store is an online shop that sells apps. Each operating system has its own version of an app store (some examples include the Apple App Store, the Google Play and Windows Phone Store), which can be accessed directly from your smartphone or via the web. Every app is designed specifically for the smartphone platform it will run on so you won’t be able to download an Android app to use on an iPhone.
Bluetooth has been around for quite a while so you may have used it before. It’s a short range wireless technology that allows you to send and receive messages, pictures and videos from other Bluetooth-enabled devices, without needing to connect the two together with any wires.
Browsers refers to the application on your phone that lets you access the internet. All operating systems have their own versions readily installed, meaning you won’t have to download a browser when you buy a new smartphone. As an example, Android handsets use Google Chrome and iPhones come a browser called Safari. They ultimately do the same job.
DLNA (Digital Living Network Alliance) is a wireless technology that allows you to play music, and view videos and pictures stored on your smartphone, on your TV or media player without needing to connect the two up with a wire. Both of your devices need to be DLNA Certified and connected to a wireless network in your house (broadband for example) in order for the whole thing to work.
EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment) which is often displayed as a capital E on iPhones, is a complex name for 2G technology. It can still be used to surf the web, but isn’t quite as speedy as 3G.
Sometimes we talk about phones and tablets having Flash support. This means the device comes with software by a company called Adobe that allows you to view animations and videos on your smartphone’s internet browser. Not all devices come with Abode Flash software as it’s a complex little thing and needs quite a bit of power from a big processor to fire it up, but most smartphones and tablets don’t have a problem with it.
Most smartphones come with a camera these days but some go one step further and can tag the exact location that a picture was taken. This is called geotagging and it uses the built-in GPS to find out where you are when you take a photo. Obviously, your phone needs to have GPS or A-GPS to be able to geotag a picture, and you’ll need to head into your phone’s camera menu to switch this function on.
A gigabyte (GB for short) is a measurement of memory storage. Gigabytes are particularly important for mobile phones and tablets because you need enough room to store things like contacts, pictures, videos and music. Most manufacturers only put a couple of GB worth of storage onto their devices, but this can often be boosted by a removable microSD card. To put things in perspective, the average song is around 4 megabytes (MB for short) , and you have 1024 megabytes in a gigabyte.
Mobile phones, as we know full well, are prone to being dropped and scratched. Gorilla Glass makes a phone’s display a little tougher than your average screen and is there to protect the glass from damage.
Before 3G came along, mobile phones used 2G to get onto the internet when out and about. GPRS, which is short for General Packet Radio Service, was created to speed things up so users could do things like send emails, download videos and browse the web at a faster rate than before. Most smartphones come with 3G connectivity on board these days, but if you’re an area of poor reception, your smartphone might resort to a lower-power signal.
The Global Positioning System uses a network of Earth orbiting satellites that can pinpoint your exact location. GPS-enabled devices are set up to ‘talk’ to some of these satellites to determine where you are as soon as you fire up the GPS transmitter.
This is short for the Global System for Mobile communications. All phones in the UK are connected to this digital mobile standard and are charged for the duration of the calls made. This is how your mobile phone network knows when you’ve gone over your monthly allowance of minutes. It’s the most popular standard in the world and is used almost everywhere, which is why you can still make calls when you go on holiday.
High-definition (HD) has been around for a while and found its way to the smartphone shortly after it’s venture on telly. It produces a higher quality image than standard definition (SD) for both videos and pictures. In the case of smartphones, you can find out if a device has HD capabilities by looking at the multimedia specs. Most smartphones have cameras capable of shooting video and playing back footage in either 720p or 1080p.
Both of these numbers refer to the resolution of a phone’s display and the amount of pixels it is able to produce. The resolution of 720p is 1280 x 720, while 1080p is 1920 x 1080. The more pixels produced and the higher the resolution, the better the final picture/video quality will be. So, 1080p offers a better picture quality than 720p.
Soon we will welcome 4K, or Ultra HD, to the mobile world after it began gaining popularity at the back end of 2013. It is four times the definition of Full HD.
HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) allows HD-enabled devices to play HD quality video and audio on a TV – you might use one for your Blu-Ray player or PlayStation. Some smartphones and tablets come with a HDMI port so you can connect your device directly to a HD ready TV and play media straight off your handset on your TV.
iOS is the name of the operating system that iPhones, iPod Touches and iPads run on. It was created by Apple exclusively for its products and doesn’t run on anything other platforms. iOS is another huge operating system because so many people have iDevices, although it doesn’t offer anything radically different to other operating systems. Apple doesn’t tend to update iOS as often as Google does with Android, but when the latest iOS software is released, it can be installed straight onto your device wirelessly.
Liquid crystal displays (LCD for short) are found on loads of phones. Manufacturers use them because they are light, cheap, and reliable and need less battery power to run. They produce clear and colourful pictures making them a good all-round option.
An LED (which stands for light emitting diode) flash allows you to take decent quality pictures in low light conditions. Most good camera phones come kitted out with one of these, but if you’re a real photography buff, a Xenon flash may be a better option.
A manufacturer creates a range of mobile phones. They’re based all over the world with most being in Asia or the USA. Well-known manufacturers include Apple, Samsung, LG, HTC, Sony and Nokia.
A megapixel (MP for short) is used to describe how capable a digital camera is of taking a good photo. One megapixel is one million pixels and so the more megapixels a phone camera has, the better quality pictures it can take.
A microSD card is a type of removable storage device. You may have come across one before as loads of different devices use them, including digital cameras and music players. A lot of smartphones and tablets come with microSD card slots that you can put a microSD card into to boost the amount of storage that’s available on your device.
They’re particularly handy if you want your phone to double up as a music player or if you like taking lots of photos. MicroSD cards are available in different sizes, so make sure you check what size microSD card your phone can support before buying one. You can get them from most tech shops, online or on the high street.
Mobile Bravia Engine
The Mobile Bravia Engine is a type of screen technology from Sony started using a couple of years ago on its smartphones – it’s actually used on its Bravia TV’s so you might have seen the technology in action before. It’s designed to produce a much more detailed picture than usual in HD quality at 1080p.
Some smartphones and tablets now have the ability to do more than one thing at once thanks to fancy processors and complex operating system technology. This is known as multitasking. In a nutshell, a device can ‘multitask’ because these two pieces of tech give it enough power and brains to be able to run a web browser, apps and other stuff, all at the same time. Make sure you close any apps you’re not using as this drain your battery life.
Near-field communication is a type of short-range wireless technology that works in a similar way to Bluetooth. It is most commonly used for making payments using a mobile phone and more smartphones are starting to surface with a built-in NFC chip. To pay for something, the device is scanned over a specially designed ‘station’ which makes a charge to your bank account. Essentially, NFC can turn your phone into a credit card, but without the chip and pin bit.
The technology can be used in other ways than for just paying for things; two devices kitted out with NFC chips will be able to wirelessly transfer documents and other information between each other. The technology could become the new way to pay for things in the future and may see us sack the credit card off altogether. Watch this space.
An operating system (we sometimes refer to it as an ‘OS’) is found on smartphones and tablets and is the software platform that manages everything that the device can do. It deals with all the day-to-day stuff from running apps and browsers to noticing any errors that occur. Think of it as being the same kind of software that your computer runs on, but in a phone instead.
The operating systems around right now are:
- Android (for Samsung, Sony, HTC)
- BlackBerry OS (for BlackBerry devices)
- iOS (for iPhones, iPod Touches and iPads)
- Windows Phone (found mostly on Nokia handsets)
A dual-core, quad-core or octa-core processor improves the overall performance of a smartphone or tablet and is made up of two, four of eight separate computer chips combined together. Because the device comes with a bunch of chips instead of just one, it can handle more tasks that are thrown its way as they work side by side to get multiple things done at once.
If you’re playing a game and you want to check some cheats online while you’re at it – instead of one chip trying to juggle running the game and the web browser at the same time, a larger processor will share the load and makes the phone run much faster.
If you hadn’t noticed before, Q, W, E, R, T and Y are the first six letters on the top line of your computer keyboard. Smartphones often come with a smaller version of this keyboard, known as a QWERTY. You may have seen the term ‘virtual QWERTY’ thrown about before and this means that instead of the handset having physical buttons to press, the QWERTY keyboard appears on your phone’s display instead. BlackBerrys are renowned for their QWERTY keyboards.
RAM (random access memory) is the place in a smartphone or tablet where the operating system, apps and data are stored. RAM isn’t very big, both in size (it’s a really small chip) and the amount of information it can hold – in non-tech terms, is could be compared to our own short-term memory. Essentially, it focuses on what’s going on right now rather than storing data for later. However, as it gets more and more information thrown its way, it tends to work at a slower pace.
Unlike RAM, ROM (read only memory) is a chip that holds data forever and ever. While RAM memory gets refreshed with the latest information, which is then lost once you turn off your phone, ROM keeps data safe as it cannot be deleted or replaced with something new.
The term ‘smartphone’ has been tossed about for quite a few years now. Smartphones are mobile phones that have a few key features to mark them out from your bog standard handset. While they still handle all the basics (making calls and sending messages), they’re actually a lot more like computers as they can access the internet on the go.
When we talk about shoot modes, we’re referring to the different types of modes that you can take pictures and videos with on your phone’s camera. Some mobiles come with more shoot options than others – normally depending on whether they’re meant to be big on photography, like the Nokia Lumia 1020 or the Sony Xperia Z1. You can access your phone’s shoot modes from the main camera menu. Here’s a run-down of all the key ones:
- Autofocus: This does what it says on the tin and automatically focuses on your subject regardless of where they are in the frame.
- Fixed focus: If your phone has a fixed focus camera, this means that you can’t adjust the focus and just have to work with what you’ve got.
- White balance: By setting this option up, your camera lens will make anything that’s white in real-life look white in the picture.
- Red eye reduction: You can use this after you’ve taken a picture to get rid of any pesky red eyes.
- Face detection: A face detection feature uses the camera’s focus and exposure in order to tell if there’s a face in the picture. It will then automatically take a snap.
- Smile detection: This does exactly the same as face detection but automatically takes a picture as soon as it notices someone in the frame smiling.
- Optical zoom: An optical zoom uses the camera’s lens to bring the subject closer.
- Digital zoom: Unlike an optical zoom, a digital zoom crops a portion of an image and then enlarges it. As a result, the overall quality of a picture isn’t as great when compared to a snap taken using an optical zoom.
- Exposure: This changes the amount of the light that is let through the camera’s iris.
- Saturation: You can use this to make the colours in your picture look deeper when you increase the saturation levels or more washed-out if you lower them.
- Contrast: Contrast is all about making different shades of colours work with each other in the same picture. By using the contrast setting on your camera, you can adjust how much you want these colours to stand out in your photo.
A social network is a website in which you create an online profile that tells the world who you are. As the title suggests, a social network is mainly used to socialise with friends and family, but recently they have been adapted to further career prospects (LinkedIn) or to keep up to date with news (Twitter). Facebook remains the most popular social channel, boasting over one billion users at the time of writing.
Think of a tablet as being halfway between a smartphone and a laptop. They’re similar in the technology department to a laptop but operate with touchscreen rather than a physical QWERTY keyboard. One of the most well known tablets is the iPad although before they hit the big time, tablets were mainly used by business folk who didn’t want to lug their laptops around.
Tablets still do all the same things as smartphones like playing videos, taking pictures, surfing the web and sending emails, but are a little too big to fit into your pocket.
TFT (thin-film transistor) is a type of LCD display. You’ll find it on all types of tech including TV’s, computer screens and of course, mobile phones. They’re a popular choice with mobile manufacturers because they don’t use a lot of electricity, which is always good for battery life, and are thin and light too.
A touchscreen is pretty much what the name suggests – it’s a type of screen that lets you control your phone by pressing the screen. The technology features on both smartphones and tablets and can sometimes come with a specially designed stylus rather than a trackpad or D-Pad. There are two types of touchscreen technology out there:
Resistive – A resistive touchscreen is somewhat of a technology sandwich. It consists of two different layers; the top is made out of scratch resistant flexible plastic and the bottom is often made out of glass or hard plastic. Both of these are lined on the inside with a thin film of material called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO for short). In between the layers are lots of tiny bumps that are evenly spread apart. When the screen is pressed, the two layers of ITO touch and through the power of electricity pin-point the exact place that the user’s finger is touching.
Capacitive – A capacitive touchscreen is also made up like an electronic sandwich except both outer layers are made of glass. Each are also coated with IFO on the inside but the two layers have insulating material squeezed in between them – like air for example.
Tethering is when a phone helps another device connect to the internet using a USB cable or Bluetooth. This is done in the same kind of way as your broadband hub at home allows you to connect your computer or smartphone to the net. Some networks let you use your mobile phone’s data plan to get on the net on another device, but make sure you check out your plan before you give it a go as you might be left to foot a rather hefty bill.
Some manufacturers have created their own user interfaces which are layered on top of an operating system. With so many handsets running on the same platform, manufacturers use the user interface, or UI, to put their own stamp on a phone.
VGA (Video Graphics Array) is a type of old-school video camera that was the precursor to the megapixel cameras. It is still found in quite a lot of mobile phones these days, although it’s often used as a secondary snapper for making video calls or taking portrait pictures. It’s fairly cheap for manufacturers to make, and the photos it produces doesn’t use a lot of storage space on the phone. The quality of the pictures aren’t great, however, which is why very few handsets come with just a VGA camera.
A video call allows both callers to see a live video of each other and speak to one another as if they were in a normal phone call. Lots of tablets and smartphones are being kitted out with front-facing cameras to make video calling easier, although you’ll need to have an internet connection to make or receive one.
It’s advised that you only make video calls when you’re connected to a Wi-Fi connection, as it uses up a lot of data and you may find yourself with an unexpected bill.
A widget is a button on your phone’s homescreen that you can use to access whatever function is assigned to it (a social network for example). The word ‘widget’ combines the words window and gadget. Fact.
A Xenon flash produces an intense white light for a short period of time. It’s popular with photographers as it doesn’t tend to wash photo subjects out as much as an LED flash can, but high-end camera phones are also getting them on board.